Laboratoire d'Analyses des Sols d'Arras






Les publis du LAS dans HAL INRAE :

HAL : Dernières publications

  • [hal-00755525] Earthworm indicators as tools for soil monitoring, characterization and risk assessment. An example from the national Bioindicator programme (France)

    Considering the limited number of bioindicators available to assess soil quality, a national research programme was set up in France to develop such indicators (2006-2012), the "Bioindicator" programme. This programme tested 47 biological parameters (i.e. microorganisms, fauna, flora) including earthworms, in several sites differing in terms of land use, contamination type - PAHs or metals - and pollution levels. The present study proposes some study objectives for bioindicator approaches, based on the earthworm results from the programme. Therefore, different earthworm descriptors were tested at the community level (e.g. abundance, biomass, species and functional structures, and ecological traits) as well as the organism level (i.e. measuring the metallothionein coding gene expression level in earthworms). The present results, obtained from the programme's spring 2009 sampling campaign, discriminated among the different descriptors and showed that earthworm and endogeic abundance as well as the individual weight of endogeics seem to be good indicators in non-contaminated (cultivated) sites, while the ecological structure, namely the proportion of anecic vs. endogeic species, and the proportion of non-vulnerable species should be used as indicators of contaminated soils. Furthermore, the first results obtained for Lumbricus terrestris and L. rubellus rubellus are encouraging as they show that metallothionein expression increases in metal-contaminated soils. The relevance of these descriptors, which have to be considered in study objectives, requires the analysis of 2010 results. (Guénola Pérès) 29 May 2020
  • [hal-03556753] Rôle du silicium dans la culture du blé en France : biodisponibilité, bioaccumulation et effet sur les rendements

    [...] (Jean-Dominique Meunier) 04 Feb 2022
  • [hal-04608181] Centennial fertilization‐induced soil processes control contemporary soil geochemistry. Lessons from a long‐term bare fallow experiment

    [...] (Folkert van Oort) 11 Jun 2024
  • [hal-04414506] The epoxiconazole and tebuconazole fungicides impair granulosa cells functions partly through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signalling with contrasted effects in obese, normo-weight and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), frequently associated to obesity, is the main reproductive disorder in women in age to procreate. Some evidence suggests that pesticides can result in alterations of the female reproductive system, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Here, we detected two fungicides, Tebuconazole (Tb) and Epoxiconazole (Epox) in the soils and waters of French area. Our hypothesis is that these two triazoles could be associated to the etiology of PCOS. We used the human KGN cell line and primary human granulosa cells (hGCs) from different group of patients: normal weight non PCOS (NW), normal weight PCOS (PCOS NW), obese (obese) and obese PCOS (PCOS obese). We exposed in vitro these cells to Tb and Epox from 0 up to 10 mM for 24 and 48 h and analysed cell viability and steroidogenesis. In hGCs NW, cell viability was reduced from 12.5 µM for Tb and 75 µM for Epox. In hGCs NW, Epox decreased progesterone (Pg) and estradiol (E2) secretions and inhibited STAR, HSD3B and CYP19A1 mRNA expressions from 25 µM and increased AHR mRNA expression from 75 µM. Tb exposure also reduced steroid secretion and STAR and CYP19A1 mRNA expressions and increased AHR mRNA expression but at cytotoxic concentrations. Silencing of AHR in KGN cells reduced inhibitory effects of Tb and Epox on steroid secretion. Tb and Epox exposure decreased more steroid secretion in hGCs from obese, PCOS NW and PCOS obese groups than in NW group. Moreover, we found a higher gene expression of AHR within these three groups. Taken together, both Epox and Tb reduced steroidogenesis in hGCs through partly AHR and Tb was more cytotoxic than Epox. These triazoles alter more strongly PCOS and/or obese hGCs suggesting that human with reproductive disorders are more sensitive to triazoles exposure. (Loïse Serra) 24 Jan 2024
  • [hal-01904542] Prediction of total silicon concentrations in French soils using pedotransfer functions from mid-infrared spectrum and pedological attributes

    Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element of the Earth's crust, and its terrestrial cycle depends on soil, vegetation, and human activities. The spatial extent of terrestrial Si perturbation is poorly documented since maps of Si concentration in soils are rare. In addition, Si content is rarely measured in non-paddy soil databases. Here we demonstrate that pedotransfer functions based on either pedological attributes (particle size fraction, pH, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, calcium carbonate and parent material) or mid infrared spectra (MIRS) can be used to accurately predict total Si concentration. In this research, we utilised a unique dataset from the French monitoring network of soil quality (RMQS - Réseau de Mesures de la Qualité des Sols) database. Pedotransfer functions were built using a regression tree model on a subset of the data for which total Si concentration was measured. To compare the relative performance of the models obtained for the two different sources of data, a suite of performance indicators were calculated. Our results showed that PTF based on MIR spectra produces highly accurate and precise estimates of the total Si concentration for French soils. The pedological PTF is less accurate, but still provides a good estimation of the Si concentration. The pedological PTF provides an alternative method when only basic soil data are available, and an approximate estimation of Si concentrations is sufficient. These PTFs can be readily applied at the European scale except on a few soil groups not represented in France. (A. Landré) 25 Oct 2018
  • [hal-01600155] Occurrence and fate of xenobiotic in sewage sludge and in sludge-amended soils

    Occurrence and fate of xenobiotic in sewage sludge and in sludge-amended soils. 15th SETAC Europe Annual Meeting (Dominique Patureau) 04 Jun 2020
  • [hal-02503457] Do climate and land use affect the pool of total silicon concentration? A digital soil mapping approach of French topsoils

    Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element in the Earth’s crust after O. Its concentration in soils is highly variable from <1% to greater than 45%. Parent material is well known to be a major parameter for explaining this variability. In this study, we proposed to analyze the impact of climate and land use on the total Si concentration in soils and to explore the link between total Si and plant available Si (PAS). To do so, we based our analysis on the French soil monitoring network considering the upper soil horizon that was thought to be the most impacted by both the effect of land use and climate and was also the most important horizon in terms of plant availability. In order to extract the impact of climate and land use and for digital mapping purposes, we stratified the database by parent material and soil-types. This stratification was based on the classification used in the 1:100,000 French soil map and 1:100,000 French soil parent material map. For non carbonated soils, we showed that Si concentrations was decreasing with annual rainfall, evidencing a climatic effect on the total Si concentration of French topsoils. No significant effect of the land used could be identified. At last, we showed that PAS (by the CaCl2 method) is negatively weakly correlated to total Si concentration. This relationship is however variable among soil classes. (Amélia Landré) 10 Mar 2020
  • [hal-02633744] Sustainability of an in situ aided phytostabilisation on highly contaminated soils using fly ashes: Effects on the vertical distribution of physicochemical parameters and trace elements

    Aided phytostabilisation using trees and fly ashes is a promising technique which has shown its effectiveness in the management of highly metal-contaminated soils. However, this success is generally established based on topsoil physicochemical analysis and short-term experiments. This paper focuses on the long-term effects of the afforestation and two fly ashes (silico-aluminous and sulfo-calcic called FA1 and FA2, respectively) by assessing the integrity of fly ashes 10 years after their incorporation into the soil as well as the vertical distribution of the physicochemical parameters and trace elements (TEs) in the amended soils (F1 and F2) in comparison with a non-amended soil (R). Ten years after the soil treatment, the particle size distribution analysis between fly ashes and their corresponding masses (fly ash + soil particles) showed a loss or an agglomeration of finer particles. This evolution matches with the appearance of gypsum (CaSO4 2H(2)O) in FA2m instead of anhydrite (CaSO4), which is the major compound of FA2. This finding corresponds well with the dissolution and the lixiviation of Ca, S and P included in FA2 along the F2 soil profile, generating an accumulation of these elements at 30 cm depth. However, no variation of TE contamination was found between 0 and 25 cm depth in F2 soil except for Cd. Conversely, Cd, Pb, Zn and Hg enrichment was observed at 25 cm depth in the F1 soil, whereas no enrichment was observed for As. The fly ashes studied, and notably FA2, were able to reduce Cd, Pb and Zn availability in soil and this capacity persists over the time despite their structural and chemical changes. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (Géraldine Bidar) 27 May 2020
  • [hal-01651297] Arsenic et vieilles parcelles

    [...] (Folkert van Oort) 28 Nov 2017
  • [hal-01771810] Centennial Fertilization-Induced Soil Processes Control Trace Metal Dynamics. Lessons from a Long-Term Bare Fallow Experiment

    Long-term bare fallow (LTBF) experiments with historical sample archives offer unique opportunities to study long-term impacts of anthropogenic activities on mineral soil fractions. In natural agro- and ecosystems, such impacts are often masked by organic matter due to its buffering action and rapid turnover. The 42-plot LTBF trial of INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique) started in Versailles (France) in 1928 to assess the impacts of prolonged application of fertilizers and amendments on the composition and properties of loamy soils. Here, we established geochemical budgets of major and trace elements on surface samples from 1929 and 2014 for four groups of treatments relevant for developed soil processes. We considered accompanying effects of soil compaction or decompaction due to changing physicochemical conditions over 85 years. Element losses from the surface horizon were quantified via fertilization-induced or -amplified soil processes: clay leaching favored by Na- or K-based fertilization, and lixiviation of major and trace elements in acidic or alkaline soil conditions. Enhanced mineral weathering was shown for acidified and nonamended plots. Conclusions on trace metal migration were confirmed by selected analyses on subsurface horizons. Additional information was provided on specific element inputs via fertilizers and/or diffuse inputs via atmospheric deposition. (Folkert van Oort) 19 Apr 2018
  • [halshs-02955803] La collection historique d’échantillons de sols de l’essai patrimonial des ‘42 parcelles’ (INRAE, Versailles) : une machine à remonter le temps...

    A la suite de travaux précédents sur les états pédogéochimiques, les bilans géochimiques et les impacts de la fertilisation dans les horizons profonds du NEOLUVISOL de lœss du dispositif des 42 parcelles d’INRAE (van Oort et al., 2016, 2017, 2020), nous examinons ici des aspects chronologiques d’évolutions intervenues en surface des sols depuis 1928. Pour cela, des séries d’une quinzaine d’échantillons de la collection historique ont été analysées pour une dizaine de traitements représentatifs : engrais à effet acidifiant (sulfate et phosphate d’ammonium), engrais à effet dispersant (nitrate de sodium, sylvinite, chlorure de potassium), superphosphate, amendements à effet alcalinisant (scories de déphosphoration, carbonate de calcium), fumier de cheval, ainsi que deux parcelles témoins’, sans apport. Nous abordons l’évolution temporelle i) des paramètres édaphiques : teneur en carbone organique et en argile, pH, CEC et garniture cationique ; ii) des teneurs totales en éléments majeurs et en trace ; iii), de la composition minéralogique de fractions argileuses et limoneuses, notamment dans le cas des traitements acidifiants. Les résultats, nombreux et souvent originaux, permettent d’apprécier l’ampleur des évolutions durant les 9 décennies d’expérimentation. Par rapport aux résultats antérieurs sur les impacts en profondeur, ces données contribuent à retracer des parties complémentaires d’une même histoire d’évolution, contrainte par les différents traitements de fertilisation. Vu sous un angle pédologique, le dispositif des 42 parcelles œuvre comme un « pédotron » en conditions réelles, mettant en évidence une accélération des processus d’évolution du sol limoneux selon différentes voies de la pédogenèse, en fonction de la nature des matières fertilisantes apportées. (Folkert van Oort) 03 Jan 2024
  • [cea-02632508] En direct de l’essai patrimonial des 42 parcelles d’INRAE à Versailles : impacts de fertilisations centenaires en profondeur du NEOLUVISOL de lœss

    Après l’étude d’évolutions pédologiques et géochimiques dans l’horizon de surface (van Oort et al., 2016, 2017a), ce nouveau volet du projet de valorisation du dispositif des 42 parcelles de l’Inra de Versailles présente les effets d’apports continus de matières fertilisantes à l’échelle du solum, pour une dizaine de traitements : ammoniacaux, engrais-Na et/ou K, phosphatés, CaCO$_3$, fumier et témoins. Pour chaque traitement, les profils de teneur en éléments (0-120 cm) ont été comparés avec le bilan 1929-2014 en surface (0-25 cm), afin de raisonner la pertinence d’études des impacts d’activités anthropiques, restreintes à l’horizon de surface. En l’absence de végétation, 85 ans de traitements ont profondément marqué les sols : l’engrais ammoniacal provoque une forte baisse du pH, la décalcification et une forte aluminisation, parfois jusqu’à 1 m. Sous traitements alcalinisants, le pH est ≥ 8 et la CEC est quasi-saturée en Ca sur toute la profondeur. L’apport d’engrais sodiques et/ou potassiques peut affecter le complexe d’échange jusque dans le matériau parental ; les allures des profils de teneurs en argile évoluent de valeurs minimales en surface pour devenir maximales dans l’horizon BT, traduisant ainsi l’effet d’amplification du lessivage d’argile par les engrais Na/K.Quant aux éléments en trace métalliques (ETM), leurs profils de concentration corroborent en général les hypothèses de transfert en profondeur, formulées à partir des bilans géochimiques établis en surface (van Oort et al., 2017a) : i) accumulations distinctes de Cd, Mn et Co sous engrais ammoniacaux, et de Mo sous apport de CaCO$_3$, ii) allures analogues de profils de concentration en Fe, Sc et Tl et celle des teneurs en argile sous apport d’engrais Na et K, iii) allures de profils de concentration évoluant rapidement de valeurs minimales à maximales entre la surface et l’horizon BT pour Mg et Ni dans les traitements ‘acides’ et ‘monovalents’, confirmant leur mobilisation à la fois sous l’effet du pH et par lessivage. Cependant, sous apport de fumier, le profil de concentration de Mo témoigne de sa forte accumulation en profondeur, non-visible par le bilan Mo en surface ; sous scories, malgré un bilan positif de Mo en surface, l’ampleur de son accumulation en profondeur surprend. Quant au Cd, les apports par les scories ou le superphosphate restent confinés en surface. Par contre, sous apport de (NH$_4$)$_2$HPO$_4$, environ 2,6 kg/ha de Cd sont transférés en profondeur. Une telle quantité équivaut à la totalité de Cd apporté par l’engrais en 85 ans. Dans le traitement (NH$_4$)$_2$SO$_4$, la quasi-totalité du fond pédogéochimique local en Cd a été exportée des 50 premiers cm du sol et transférée entre 70 et 100 cm.Ce travail atteste des aspects originaux et spectaculaires d’impacts cumulés au cours de la fertilisation prolongée sur la composition des sols, sous l’horizon de bêchage. Il souligne l’intérêt de considérer le solum pour une évaluation optimale des risques liés aux activités anthropiques. Dès lors, nos résultats appellent à d’avantage d’expertise en pédologie dans les programmes de recherches environnementales, qui se limitent aujourd’hui trop souvent à des approches analytiques sur des échantillons collectés en surface des sols. (Folkert van Oort) 27 May 2020
  • [ineris-00963349] Bioaccessibility of trace elements as affected by soil parameters in smelter-contaminated agricultural soils : a statistical modeling approach

    An investigation was undertaken to identify the most significant soil parameters that can be used to predict Cd, Pb, and Zn bioaccessibility in smelter-contaminated agricultural soils. A robust model was established from an extended database of soils by using : a training set of 280 samples to select the main soil parameters, to define the best population to be taken into account for the model elaboration, and to construct multivariate regression models, and a test set of 110 samples to validate the ability of the regression models. Total carbonate, organic matter, sand, P2O5, free Fe-Mn oxide, and pseudo total Aland trace element (TE) contents appeared as the main variables governing TE bioaccessibility. The statistical modeling approach was reasonably successful, indicating that the main soil factors influencing the bioaccessibility of TEs were taken into account and the predictions could be applicable for further risk evaluation in the studied area. (Aurélie Pelfrene) 21 Mar 2014
  • [hal-02651411] Assessment of potential health risk for inhabitants living near a former lead smelter. Part 2 : site-specific human health risk assessment of Cd and Pb contamination in kitchen gardens

    Metal contamination of urban soils and homegrown products has caused major concern. In Part 1, we investigated the long-term effects of a former smelter on the degree of kitchen garden-soil contamination and the quality of the homegrown vegetables from these gardens. The results showed that the soils retained a high level of contamination and that a large proportion of the vegetables produced did not comply with the legislation on the levels of metals allowed for human consumption. The present study aims to assess the associated potential health risk to local inhabitants through consumption of homegrown vegetables and ingestion of soil particles using a land use-based approach. For lead (Pb), the standard hazard quotient (HQ)-based risk assessment method was used to determine the HQ. For cadmium (Cd), the approach consisted of calculating the HQs and then deriving site-specific assessment criteria (SSAC) using the SNIFFER method. The results suggested that the exposure pathways considered should not engender any form of deleterious health effects for adults. For children, Pb was the main concern and induced a relatively high health risk through soil particle ingestion, and most total soil Cd concentrations exceeded the derived SSAC, in particular, through consumption of vegetables. The metal bioaccessibility in soils was incorporated into the methods to establish more realistic risk assessment measures. This study proposes an approach to integrate different human health risk assessment methods. Further investigations should complete the assessment to improve risk determination, e.g., the determination of metal bioaccessibility in vegetables. (Aurélie Pelfrêne) 29 May 2020
  • [hal-02640025] Use of an in vitro digestion method to estimate human bioaccessibility of Cd in vegetables grown in smelter-impacted soils: the influence of cooking

    Metal contamination of urban soils and homegrown vegetables has caused major concern. Some studies showed that cadmium (Cd) was among the most significant hazards in kitchen garden soils and prolonged exposure to this metal could cause deleterious health effects in humans. In general, most risk assessment procedures are based on total concentrations of metals in vegetables. The present study assesses human bioaccessibility of Cd in vegetables cultivated in smelter-impacted kitchen garden soils. Seven vegetables (radish, lettuce, French bean, carrot, leek, tomato, and potato) were considered. Using the UBM protocol (unified BARGE bioaccessibility method), the bioaccessibility of Cd was measured in raw/cooked vegetables. A considerable amount of Cd was mobilized from raw vegetables during the digestion process (on average 85 % in the gastric phase and 69 % in the gastrointestinal phase), which could be attributed to a high uptake of Cd during the growth of the vegetables. Most Cd is accumulated in the vacuoles of plant cells, except what is absorbed by the cell wall, allowing Cd to be released from plant tissues under moderate conditions. Cooking by the steaming process generally increased the bioaccessibility of Cd in French bean, carrot, and leek. For potato, few or no significant differences of Cd bioaccessibility were observed after the steaming process, while the frying process strongly decreased bioaccessibility in both phases. The estimation of metal bioaccessibility in vegetables is helpful for human health risk assessment. (Aurélie Pelfrêne) 28 May 2020
  • [hal-03641108] Assessment of an NDL-PCBs Sequestration Strategy in Soil Using Contrasted Carbonaceous Materials through In Vitro and Cucurbita pepo Assays

    Featured Application A sequestration-based remediation strategy using several types of carbonaceous amendments and its potential to reduce transfer to plants. The present study aims to assess the respective efficiency of Biochars (BCs) and activated carbons (ACs) to limit PCB 101, 138, 153 and 180 transfer to plants. A set of 6 high carbon materials comprising 3 BCs and 3 ACs was tested and used to amend a soil at 2% rate. Then, the two most efficient carbonaceous materials were used as an amendment of an historically contaminated soil sampled in the St Cyprien vicinity (Loire, France). An environmental availability assessment was performed using the ISO/DIS 16751 Part A assay (n = 3). For the in vivo part, Cucurbita pepo were grown for 12 weeks. Significant decreases of transfer were found for both assays notably for powdered ACs (up to 98%). By contrast, significantly lower levels of transfer reduction were observed when BCs amendments were performed, ranging from 27 to 80% for environmental availability assessment and 0 to 36% for C. pepo. Reduction factors above 90% for the 2 selected materials were found from amended historically contaminated soils. Present results led to consider such a sequestering strategy as valuable to ensure plant production on non-dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (NDL-PCBs) contaminated soils. (Séverine Piutti) 14 Apr 2022
  • [hal-04062785] Can long-term fertilization accelerate pedogenesis? Depicting soil processes boosted by annual NPK-inputs since 1928 on bare loess Luvisol (INRAE-Versailles)

    Human activities worldwide menace beneficial soil ecosystem services, but long-term anthropogenic impacts on soil properties and processes are often difficult to assess in field conditions. Here we exploited INRAE's patrimonial '42-plots' bare-fallow experiment, an unique long term experiment in the world created in 1928 in Versailles (France), to emphasize long-term impacts of annual inputs of NPK fertilizers (ammonium, phosphate, potassium salts) and basic amendments (lime, basic slag) on loess Luvisols. We selected plots receiving monovalent (Na+, K+), acid (NH4+), basic (Ca2+) and non-amended (reference) plots, thus embracing the today widely diverging physicochemical surface soils conditions. Temporal changes of soil characteristics were studied on historical archived topsoil samples, whereas soil-depth impacts were studied on samples from subsurface horizons collected in 2015 until 120-cm depth. Bare-fallow management caused a rapid organic matter (OM) decay, soil acidification, CEC reduction and lixiviation of cations. With reduced OM-buffering capacities, specific fertilizer-induced physicochemical conditions enhanced the development of several soil-forming processes. NH(4)fertilizers amplified soil acidification (pH < 4), lixiviation (i.e. 1.5 kg m 2 of Ca), aluminization of the exchange complex, and weathering of ferromagnesian minerals and plagioclase feldspars. Under (NH4)(2)HPO4 fertilization, a quasi-total dissolution of chlorite and hornblende occurred, pointing to an acidocomplexolysis process in which the PO43- anion likely plays the role of complexing organic acids in Podzols. Ammonium fertilizers also affected E, B and C horizons. In reference plots, similar but lower effects remained restricted to the surface horizon. Na/Kfertilizers favoured substantial clay translocation (i.e. 10-15 kg m(-2)) from the Ap to underlying E and E/Bt horizons. Liming amendments counteracted acidifying effects of OM-depletion, and raised the pH to 8-8.5 and exchangeable Ca to >95%. It may be clear that the initial design specifications do not allow a direct comparison with current conditions of agricultural soils. However, in the view of global climate change, foreseeing a lowering of organic carbon contents in soils, the 42-plots trial acts like an "alert launcher", forecasting risks of soil degradation with respect to mineral soil phases, parameters and processes, generally buffered and masked by the presence of organic matter. The 42-plots experiment forms a high-valued playing field for experimental research, offering a unique centennial time-span of differing physicochemical properties in a soil context with close initial pedogenetic connexion. (Folkert van Oort) 07 Apr 2023
  • [hal-01173741] L'état des sols de France

    Ce livre met à la disposition d’un large public le premier état des lieux sur la qualité des sols de France métropolitaine et des Outre-mer. Il repose sur un important travail d’acquisition et d’exploitation de données réalisé par le Groupement d’Intérêt Scientifique Sol depuis 10 ans. Après avoir décrit les différentes fonctions des sols dans nos sociétés puis leur diversité, le cœur de l’ouvrage examine et synthétise les données acquises sur l’état chimique, biologique et physique des sols. Bien que subsistent encore de fortes incertitudes, cet état des lieux souligne les principales inquiétudes relatives à l’évolution de la qualité des sols mais met aussi en évidence certains points positifs. En effet, les sols sont le support des activités agricoles et sylvicoles et les garants de notre sécurité alimentaire. En interagissant avec les autres milieux, ils assurent des services essentiels à l’Homme et à l’environnement. Pourtant, ils restent encore largement méconnus, car leur présence est le plus souvent occultée par la végétation, les habitations ou les infrastructures qui les recouvrent. Or, les sols constituent une ressource naturelle dont la destruction est difficilement réversible et la réhabilitation très coûteuse. Leurs usages et leur devenir représentent un enjeu collectif majeur pour le développement durable. La connaissance de leur état et de son évolution est donc primordiale tant pour le maintien des activités humaines que pour la préservation de la qualité de notre environnement. Considérant « le sol » comme un enjeu insuffisamment connu, le Groupement d’Intérêt Scientifique sur les sols, le Gis Sol, a été créé en 2001 par plusieurs acteurs publics. Il contribue aujourd’hui par cette première synthèse nationale à l’amélioration des connaissances sur les sols et à leur plus large appropriation par les citoyens, les décideurs ou les aménageurs. (Véronique Antoni) 13 Dec 2021
  • [hal-01000800] First evidence of large-scale PAH trends in French soils

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread organic pollutants. Soils are a reservoir of PAHs because some soil constituents favour PAH accumulation. Therefore, soil is a key indicator of the degree of contamination. So far, studies mapping soil PAH levels over large territories are very rare. Here, we report the first nation-wide maps of soil PAHs in France. Results were obtained within the French National Soil Monitoring Network, which is the first European network monitoring systematically soil PAHs. We used advanced geostatistics to map PAH distribution over the whole French territory. Our results show clear trends of PAH levels at the nation scale. For instance, the highest PAH levels are found in Northern and Eastern France. This high contamination is explained by the intense industrial activity of these regions during the last century. High levels of PAH are also found near some coastlines. This observation could be explained by long-range atmospheric transportation. In addition, we found that light PAHs are rarely found in French topsoils. (Estelle E. Villanneau) 04 Jun 2014
  • [hal-01192212] Which persistent organic pollutants can we map in soil using a large spacing systematic soil monitoring design? A case study in Northern France

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) impact upon human and animal health and the wider environment. It is important to determine where POPs are found and the spatial pattern of POP variation. The concentrations of 90 molecules which are members of four families of POPs and two families of herbicides were measured within a region of Northern France as part of the French National Soil Monitoring Network (RMQS: Réseau de Mesures de la Qualité des Sols). We also gather information on five covariates (elevation, soil organic carbon content, road density, land cover and population density) which might influence POP concentrations. The study region contains 105 RMQS observation sites arranged on a regular square grid with spacing of 16 km. The observations include hot-spots at sites of POP application, smaller concentrations where POPs have been dispersed and observations less than the limit of quantification (LOQ) where the soil has not been impacted by POPs. Fifty nine of the molecules were detected at less than 50 sites and hence the data were unsuitable for spatial analyses. We represent the variation of the remaining 31 molecules by various linear mixed models which can include fixed effects (i.e. linear relationships between the molecule concentrations and covariates) and spatially correlated random effects. The best model for each molecule is selected by the Akaike Information Criterion. For nine of the molecules, spatial correlation is evident and hence they can potentially be mapped. For four of these molecules, the spatial correlation cannot be wholly explained by fixed effects. It appears that these molecules have been transported away from their application sites and are now dispersed across the study region with the largest concentrations found in a heavily populated depression. More complicated statistical models and sampling designs are required to explain the distribution of the less dispersed molecules. (Estelle Villanneau) 02 Sep 2015
  • [hal-01192264] Spatial distribution of lindane in topsoil of Northern France

    Lindane is a persistent organochlorine insecticide and the use of this insecticide in agriculture was banned in France in 1998. In this study we investigated the concentrations of lindane in topsoil in Northern France and used robust geostatistics to map the geographical distribution of lindane. The study was based on a 16 km × 16 km grid covering an area of ca 25 000 km2. Lindane was found in all soils, even those from non-agricultural-application areas. Very low ratios of α-/γ-HCH and δ-/γ-HCH suggested that a long time had passed since technical HCH was used in the studied area, or that emission sources of lindane were still present. A strong gradient in lindane concentration was observed, with the highest lindane concentrations in an area located in the northern region. Results suggested that some of the lindane observed in the high concentration area may have come from volatilization of old lindane applied to intensively cultivated areas, which was then transported by prevailing winds coming from the south-west and deposited in a densely inhabited depression. (Estelle Villanneau) 02 Sep 2015
  • [hal-03818090] PIEGEAge des Composés Halogénés Lipophiles Organiques Rémanents (PIEGEACHLOR)

    Le projet Piegeachlor s'est donné pour objectif de réduire la disponibilité des plusieurs familles de contaminants organochlorés retrouvés dans les sols. Les contaminants étudiés sont les polychlorobiphényles, les polychloro-dibenzodioxines et furanes, ainsi que la chlordécone. L'hypothèse initiale du projet était que des matrices carbonées issues de pyrolyse de ligneux telles que des biochars pouvaient jouer un rôle de séquestration. Les propriétés de séquestration ont été testées en mobilisant plusieurs méthodologies. La première est basée sur une approche in vitro, qualifiant la disponibilité environnementale. Elle simule la capacité d'un milieu aqueux à désorber les polluants. Les autres utilisaient un biote cible (ver, radis, courgette, poule) pour déterminer la biodisponibilité relative de chacun des contaminants en fonction de la matrice carbonée utilisée. Ces approches ont été appliquées d'abord sur des sols artificiels de type OCDE avec de la tourbe comme matière organique endogène. Après une sélection des matrices carbonées les plus performantes en termes de séquestration, une partie des tests précédemment décrits a été appliquée sur des sols naturels prélevés en métropole (Saint-Cyprien) et en Martinique (Morne-Rouge, Trinité), respectivement contaminé en PCB+PCDD/F et en CLD. Des essais d'innocuité de l'amendement ont également été menés. (Giovanni Caria) 17 Oct 2022
  • [hal-02669136] Épandages de boues d'épurations urbaines sur des terres agricoles : impacts sur la composition en éléments en traces des sols et des grains de blé tendre

    [...] (Denis Baize) 31 May 2020
  • [hal-01199208] Epandages de boues d’épuration urbaines sur des terres agricoles : impacts sur la composition en éléments en traces des sols et des grains de blé tendre

    Les éléments traces métalliques (ETM – cadmium, chrome, cuivre, mercure, nickel, plomb, zinc, etc.) sont des constituants indésirables des boues d’épuration urbaines. Comme certains d’entre eux sont potentiellement toxiques et ne présentent aucun intérêt agronomique, leur présence génère une certaine inquiétude, parfaitement compréhensible lorsqu’il est question d’épandre ces déchets sur des sols destinés à produire des aliments pour l’Homme ou les animaux (CTP, 2000 ; Borraz, 2000 ; Tercé, 2001 ; Barbier et Lupton, 2003 ; Nicourt et Girault, 2003). On doit noter cependant que, sous le même vocable, on peut trouver des boues de compositions extrêmement diverses, selon qu’il s’agit de petites stations de bourgs ruraux ou de grosses stations d’une grande agglomération industrielle. D’où l’importance de bien connaître et de bien suivre la concentration en ETM dans les boues d’épuration produites. (Denis Baize) 15 Sep 2015
  • [hal-03247380] Spatial variations, origins, and risk assessments of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in French soils

    Abstract. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent organic pollutants produced by anthropogenic activities that contaminate all environmental spheres, including soils. This study focused on PAHs measured in 2154 soils in France, covering the entire territory based on a regular sampling grid. The quantified concentrations in the Σ15 PAHs ranged from 5.1 to 31 200 µg kg−1, with a median value of 32.6 µg kg−1, and PAHs were detected in 70 % of the soil samples. The map of Σ15 PAH concentrations revealed strong spatial variations in soil contamination throughout France, with larger concentrations in soils of industrial regions and near major cities. PAH molecular diagnostic ratios support the historical origin of PAHs in the northern part of France being linked to the significant emissions of PAHs in Europe during the industrial period of 1850–1950, in particular with the contribution of coal and/or biomass combustion and iron–steel production. A health risk assessment conducted for the residential population resulted in a median value of 1.07 × 10−8 in total lifetime cancer risk, with only 20 sites above the limit of 10−6 and one above the limit of 10−5 adopted by the French government. These results reveal the need to conduct large-scale studies on soil contamination to determine the fate of PAHs and evaluate the risks induced by soil pollution at a country-level scale. (Claire Froger) 02 Jan 2024
  • [hal-01192053] Proposition d'essais méthodologiques de détermination des Polluants 0rganiques Persistants (POPs) sur un sous échantillon du RMQS

    absent (Estelle Villanneau) 02 Sep 2015
  • [hal-01192511] Proposition d'essais méthodologiques de détermination des Polluants Organiques Persistants (POPs) sur un sous-échantillon du RMQS

    Les Polluants Organiques Persistants (POPs) peuvent être très rémanents, bioaccumulables et toxiques et les sols sont un réservoir pour nombre d'entre eux. A l'heure actuelle, aucune base de données ne répertorie les valeurs en POPs sur l'ensemble de la France. Le projet POP RMQS consiste en une étude localisée des Polluants Organiques Persistants (POPs) dans les sols basée sur le Réseau de Mesure de la Qualité des Sols (RMQS) dans l'objectif de déterminer leur détectabilité, d'observer d'éventuels gradients et d'indiquer l'orientation du choix des paramètres dans le cas de l'extension de cette étude au niveau national. Beaucoup des sites analysés en POPs comptent des valeurs inférieures au seuil de détection. Il est possible d'observer des gradients pour certains groupes de POPs, comme les Hydrocarbures Aromatiques Polycycliques (HAPs), les Pesticides OrganoChlorés (OCPs) et les herbicides, souvent localisés dans le même secteur. Cette localisation commune ne semble pas avoir la même origine pour les HAPs et les OCPs et herbicides (Estelle Villanneau) 02 Sep 2015
  • [hal-01173771] The state of the soils in France in 2011 - A synthesis

    [...] (Véronique Antoni) 06 Jun 2020
  • [hal-00829418] Assessing the in situ bioavailability of trace elements to snails using accumulation kinetics.

    In this study, the accumulation kinetics of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and antimony(Sb) were determined for 3 industrially impacted sites to assess the bioavailability of these contaminantsto the garden snail (Cantareus aspersus). Mono and multivariate regressions allowed the identificationof cation exchange capacity (CEC), silts and organic carbon content as the soil parameters modulatingthe in situ bioavailability of Cd and Pb. For all elements, the total concentrations in the soils were notgood predictor (not significant correlation) of the bioavailability to snails. The Cd, As and Sb assimilationfluxes were correlated with the calcium chloride (CaCl2) extract concentrations, but this correlationwas not observed with Pb. The total soil concentration coupled with soil properties best explained thevariation in Pb assimilation, whereas their influences on Cd bioavailability were lower, signifying thatother parameters such as contamination sources may modulate Cd bioavailability. Here, the As and Sbin situ accumulation kinetics are described for the first time and highlighted a slight bioavailability tosnails at the studied sites. The absence of a correlation between the As or Sb assimilation fluxes andtotal metals in the soil coupled with the absence of influence of soil properties on their bioavailabilitymay result from the speciation of these metalloids, which are known to modulate their mobility in soils.This study highlights the need to consider both physico-chemical and biological aspects of metal andmetalloid bioavailability to assess the risk of metal transfer from soil to organisms. (Benjamin Pauget) 03 Jun 2013
  • [hal-02650865] Assessment of potential health risk for inhabitants living near a former lead smelter. Part 1: metal concentrations in soils, agricultural crops, and homegrown vegetables

    Soil contamination by metals engenders important environmental and health problems in northern France where a smelter (Metaleurop Nord) was in activity for more than a century. This study aims to look at the long-term effects of the smelter after its closedown by combining data on the degree of soil contamination and the quality of the crops grown (agricultural crops and homegrown vegetables) in these soils for a better assessment of the local population's exposure to Cd, Pb, and Zn. Seven years after the Metaleurop Nord closedown, (1) the agricultural and urban topsoils were strongly contaminated by Cd, Pb, and Zn; (2) the kitchen garden topsoils were even more polluted than the agricultural soils, with great variability in metal concentrations within the gardens studied; (3) a high proportion of the agricultural crops for foodstuffs did not conform with the European legislation; (4) for feedstuffs, most samples did not exceed the Cd and Pb legislation limits, indicating that feedstuffs may be an opportunity for most agricultural produce; and (5) a high proportion of the vegetables produced in the kitchen gardens did not conform with the European foodstuff legislation. The high contamination level of the soils studied continues to be a risk for the environment and the population's health. A further investigation (part 2) assesses the associated potential health risk for local inhabitants through consumption of homegrown vegetables and ingestion of soil particles by estimating the site-specific human health assessment criteria for Cd and Pb. (Francis Douay) 29 May 2020
  • [hal-03200468] Spatial variations, origins, and risk assessments of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in French soils

    Abstract. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent organic pollutants produced by anthropogenic activities that contaminate all environmental spheres, including soils. This study focused on PAHs measured in 2154 soils in France, covering the entire territory based on a regular sampling grid. The quantified concentrations in the Σ15PAHs ranged from 5.1 to 31200 µg · kg−1, with a median value of 32.6 µg · kg−1, and PAHs were detected in 70 % of the soil samples. The map of Σ15PAHs concentrations revealed strong spatial variations in soil contamination throughout France, with larger concentrations in soils of industrial regions and near major cities. PAHs molecular diagnostic ratios supports the historical origin of PAHs in the northern part of France being linked to the significant emissions of PAHs in Europe during the industrial period of 1850–1950 with in particular the contribution of coal/biomass combustion and iron-steel production. A health risk assessment conducted for the residential population resulted in a median value of 1.07 × 10−8 in total lifetime cancer risk, with only 20 sites above the limit of 10−6 and one above the limit of 10−5 adopted by the French government. These results reveal the need to conduct large-scale studies on soil contamination to determine the fate of PAHs and evaluate the risks induced by soil pollution at a country-level scale. (Claire Froger) 16 Apr 2021
  • [hal-01192305] Analyse spatiale de la teneur en PCB-187 des sols du RMQS en utilisant les données inférieures au seuil de quantification

    absent (Thomas Orton) 03 Jun 2020
  • [hal-01655127] Radial metal concentration profiles in trees growing on highly contaminated soils

    The soil around Metaleurop, a big smelter, is heavily contaminated by Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu. In order to compare the impact of different soil amendments on the metal availability to trees, the polluted soil section was divided in a reference parcel and two others with either sulfo-calcic or silico-aluminous ash amendments. Five different tree species were planted on the parcels and the uptake of heavy metals in these trees was studied. Total and labile metal fractions were assessed in each of the 3 parcels. The mobility and assimilation of the metals was highest in the non-amended, reference soil parcel which had the lowest pH, organic matter and carbonate content. In all soils, pH decreased while organic matter content and mobility of the metals increased over time. Highest bulk concentrations of trace metals were found in white willow trees (Salix alba L). Laser ablation-ICPMS was used to study changes in metal accumulation over a period of 10 years after planting the trees. The radial metal profiles in the trunk core samples varied between elements and tree species, however, in all willow trees the radial Cd and Zn profiles were significantly correlated. Radial pollutant concentration patterns are discussed in terms. of seasonal effects, health status, tree species and metal mobility in the soil. For Cd and Zn, the profiles were influenced by their mobility in the soils. In general, periodical patterns were observed for Pb. Cu concentration profiles were decreasing over time, with the strongest decrease in the initial growth period. (Pierre-Jean Superville) 04 Dec 2017
  • [hal-04181805] First glance of French soil contamination by pesticide residues and the interest for broad-scale monitoring

    The intensive use of pesticides in modern agriculture raised concerns about their environmental fate and impacts on the ecosystems. If the monitoring of those substances in water bodies has been established in Europe since the 2000’s, knowledge of soil contamination by such residues is scarce. However, the few studies addressing this issue pointed out the widespread occurrence of pesticides in soils and the risk they can pose for soil biodiversity. This study investigated 111 currently used pesticides in 47 soils sampled across France, mostly from arable lands but also from forest and grasslands theoretically exempted of pesticides applications. The sampling strategy was based on the French Soil Quality Monitoring Network (Jolivet et al., 2022) to evaluate the feasibility of using an existing network for pesticides monitoring in soils. The results demonstrated the widespread contamination of almost all soils samples by residues, including untreated areas such as forests and permanent grasslands. Up to 33 different substances in one soil sample were detected, at concentrations leading to a medium to high ecotoxicological risk for earthworms in arable lands. Several frequently detected residues have never been reported in the literature so far or were found at much lower detection rates. Finally, the comparison with pesticide application records provided by the farmers revealed the unexpected presence of some substance in sites where they were not applied and a longer than expected persistence of several compounds. These findings question the fate of currently used pesticides in the environment under current agricultural practices and advocate for the monitoring of pesticides in soils at broad scales. Filling the knowledge gap of pesticide presence in soil is necessary to understand the contamination of other environmental compartments and prevent their contamination. (Claire Froger) 16 Aug 2023
  • [hal-04236772] Comment développer un suivi de la biodiversité des sols français en s’appuyant sur le Réseau de Mesures de la Qualité des Sols (RMQS) ?

    Pour répondre au besoin de connaissances sur la biodiversité des sols, nous explorons la possibilité d’adosser un suivi de la biodiversité des sols au Réseau de Mesures de la Qualité des Sols (RMQS). Ce couplage a pour objectif de bénéficier du caractère opérationnel du RMQS et de croiser les informations sur la biodiversité avec les données déjà disponibles sur les sols. Des mesures de biodiversité sont d’ailleurs déjà effectuées sur les sites du RMQS. Un groupe de travail incluant des experts nationaux a conçu un questionnaire pour évaluer la compatibilité du plan d’échantillonnage du RMQS avec la surveillance de la biodiversité des sols et définir les caractéristiques de ce nouveau suivi (taxons et fonctions à suivre, protocoles, besoins matériels, humains et financiers). Ces mêmes experts ont ensuite répondu au questionnaire et les informations collectées ont été complétées lors d’entretiens individuels. Les avancées du projet ont été validées en réunions plénières. Au sortir de ces réflexions, il a été conclu que le plan d’échantillonnage du RMQS (maille de 16 km x 16 km, site d’étude de 400 m2, ré-échantillonnage de chaque site tous les 15 ans) convenait à un suivi de la biodiversité des sols. Cependant, les experts écologues ont mis en avant la nécessité d’effectuer l’échantillonnage de la mésofaune et de la macrofaune au printemps. Ils recommandent cinq protocoles qui permettent de suivre les micro-organismes, la microfaune, la mésofaune et la macrofaune du sol. Une mesure de la flore a aussi été intégrée avec le suivi de la banque de graines. Trois fonctions (macroporosité du sol due à l’activité des vers de terre, activités enzymatiques et dégradation de la matière organique) seraient également mesurées. Si le RMQS-Biodiversité est mis en place de manière pérenne et déployé sur les 2240 sites métropolitains, il devrait permettre de documenter de manière robuste la biogéographie des organismes du sol, de décrypter leurs liens avec les pratiques agricoles et possiblement la découverte de nouvelles espèces. Une réflexion complémentaire devra être engagée pour les sites ultra-marins. (Camille Imbert) 11 Oct 2023
  • [hal-02669405] Factors affecting trace element concentrations in soils developed on recent marine deposits from northern France

    [...] (Thibault Sterckeman) 31 May 2020
  • [hal-03206056] A new, simple, efficient and robust multi-residue method based on pressurised-liquid extraction of agricultural soils to analyze pesticides by liquid chromatography coupled with a high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    [...] (Giovanni Caria) 27 Feb 2023
  • [hal-04314240] In vitro exposure to triazoles used as fungicides impairs human granulosa cells steroidogenesis

    Triazoles are the main components of fungicides used in conventional agriculture. Some data suggests that they may be endocrine disruptors. Here, we found five triazoles, prothioconazole, metconazole, difenoconazole, tetraconazole, and cyproconazole, in soil or water from the Centre-Val de Loire region of France. We then studied their effects from 0.001 µM to 1000 µM for 48 h on the steroidogenesis and cytotoxicity of ovarian cells from patients in this region and the human granulosa line KGN. In addition, the expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) nuclear receptor in KGN cells was studied. Overall, all triazoles reduced the secretion of progesterone, estradiol, or both at doses that were non-cytotoxic but higher than those found in the environment. This was mainly associated, depending on the triazole, with a decrease in the expression of CYP51, STAR, CYP11A1, CYP19A1, or HSD3B proteins, or a combination thereof, in hGCs and KGN cells and an increase in AHR in KGN cells. (Loïse Serra) 29 Nov 2023
  • [hal-02659648] Location of trace elements in unpolluted soils by a combined method.

    A sequential extraction procedure was combined with physical fractionation and mineralogy to determine the distribution of trace elements (TE) among the different phases of a poorly weathered sample. It was first fractionated into five particle-size fractions. Two of these were selected for sequential extractions on the basis of their contrasting mineralogical compositions. A five-step sequential extraction scheme was employed. The studied sample is mostly composed of hornblende, quartz, and feldspars. Early weathering has already occurred, resulting in the formation of smectite and oxides. Sequential extractions show that the studied elements are mostly associated with the residual phases. Hornblende was the main TE bearer of the primary minerals, whereas TEs released through weathering precipitated in both smectite and oxides. Oxides were found to scavenge copper (Cu) and cobalt (Co) more efficiently than smectite. Copper and nickel (Ni) were more concentrated in smectite than in hornblende. (Sophie S. Cornu) 30 May 2020
  • [hal-02666811] Consequences of aggregation for the trace element distribution in the subsoil of a Planosol naturally rich in trace-metal

    [...] (Sophie S. Cornu) 31 May 2020
  • [hal-04412728] Projet Phytosol Résidus de pesticides dans les sols français : présence, risques et persistance

    À la différence de ce qui est fait pour les milieux aquatiques et l'atmosphère, la surveillance de la contamination des sols par les pesticides n'existe pas à l'échelle du territoire. Or, des travaux récents de chercheurs INRAE, en collaboration avec l'université de Bordeaux, montrent qu'un grand nombre de substances, en quantité importante, y persistent sous forme de résidus. Des résultats parus dans la revue Environmental Science & Technology. (Claire Froger) 26 Jan 2024
  • [hal-04311286] Etude de la contamination organique de sols agricoles français par criblage suspect et non ciblé en masse à haute résolution

    Les polluants organiques présents dans l’environnement sont essentiellement issus des activités humaines. Ils contaminent les milieux naturels aquatiques, atmosphériques et terrestres. Les sols agricoles peuvent être contaminés en polluants organiques du fait de l’utilisation de produits phytopharmaceutiques et de l’épandage de produits résiduaires organiques (boues, composts, lisiers). Des analyses ciblées ont ainsi été développées et appliquées par les laboratoires d’analyses pour la détermination de polluants organiques dans les sols à l’aide de techniques très sensibles du type LC-MS/MS et GC-MS/MS. Cependant, cette approche ciblée nécessite de sélectionner un nombre restreint de composés organiques connus (quelques dizaines) et, par conséquent, ne permet pas d’évaluer la diversité des polluants organiques présents dans les sols agricoles français. Aussi, notre étude a porté sur le développement d’une stratégie de caractérisation de l’état de contamination organique des sols par criblage en masse ciblé et non ciblé. Dans un premier temps, une nouvelle méthode de dosage d’une trentaine de produits phytopharmaceutiques (herbicides, fongicides, insecticides) a été développée et validée avec les extrait de sols. Les sols ont été extraits à l’aide d’une méthode PLE, à chaud et sous pression à l’aide de l’acétonitrile. Les extraits sont concentrés suivi par une filtration et puis analysés par la chromatographie liquide couplée à un spectromètre de masse à haute résolution et à temps de vol (LC-QTOF-MS Bruker Impact II). Dans un second temps, les performances de cette méthode ont été évaluées pour l’analyse d’une quarantaine de produits pharmaceutiques (humains et vétérinaires) et d’hormones oestrogéniques, susceptibles d’être présents dans les boues de station d’épuration ou des lisiers d’élevages agricoles et de se retrouver dans les sols agricoles après épandage. La méthode offre de rendement pour la plupart des molécules sélectionnées à l’exception quelques molécules et en particulier les molécules polaires. Pour améliorer les rendements d’extraction de ces molécules dont les molécules polaires, une deuxième méthode a été développée en utilisant l’eau ultrapure comme solvant d’extraction, suivi par une concentration/purification sur colonne Oasis HLB et puis analysé par la LC-QTOF-MS. Ces deux méthodes développées offrent une bonne performance pour évaluer la présence de polluants organiques de nature, d’origine et de propriétés très différentes dans les sols agricoles. Les deux méthodes ont été, par la suite, appliquées à une sélection de 40 sols agricoles français, d’usages agricoles différents (grandes cultures, forêts, pâtures et vigne) provenance de la région Centre-Val de Loire. Les parcelles de grandes cultures ont fait l’objet de traitements phytosanitaires différents en nombre, fréquence et nature. Les deux extraits obtenus pour chacun des 40 sols français ont été analysés en LC-QTOF-MS, de manière séquentielle en électrospray positif (ESI+) puis négatif (ESI-) avec la méthode de masse spécifique du mode « suspect » et ensuite avec la méthode de masse spécifique du mode non ciblé NTS (non-target screening). L’identification de composés organiques dans les extraits de sols analysés en mode « suspect » a été réalisée à l’aide du logiciel Tasq couplé à la base de données TargetScreener, spécifique du LC-QTOF-MS, comportant environ 2500 composés organiques dont des produits phytopharmaceutiques, médicaments humains, produits vétérinaires, hormones, produits naturels et industriels. Le bilan des analyses en mode suspect des sols est de 825 analytes détectés et identifiés dont 399 produits phytopharmaceutiques (48,4%), 279 médicaments humains ou vétérinaires (33,8%), 103 drogues de synthèse (12,5%), 19 hormones animales ou végétales (2,3%), 15 produits naturels (1,8%), 5 produits industriels (0,6%) et 5 produits chimiques autres (0,6%). Parmi les produits phytopharmaceutiques, on dénombre 154 insecticides (38,6%), 136 herbicides (34,1%), 105 fongicides (26,3%), 3 rodenticides (0,8%) et 1 antioxydant (0,2%). La qualité de l’identification des composés organiques par l’analyse suspect est fonction d’un score global calculé à partir de 4 scores individuels de qualité évaluant la concordance entre les données expérimentales et théoriques (TargetScreener) de masse exacte, temps de rétention, rapport isotopique, et ions qualifiants. L’identification d’un composé organique est hautement probable lorsque le score global est 4+ ce qui correspond au cumul d’un score individuel 2+ pour chacun des 4 critères de qualité. Les composés organiques sont ainsi classés par ordre décroissant de probabilité d’identification selon les scores globaux 4+, 3+, 1+ et 4-. L’analyse des extraits à l’acétonitrile en mode NTS a fait l’objet d’un traitement de données statistiques et chimiométriques à l’aide du logiciel Metaboscape pour l’identification de composés organiques à partir de multiples bases de données dont certaines indépendantes du LC-QTOF-MS. On dénombre ainsi, d’une part en ionisation positive, un total de 40922 composés organiques annotés dont 15348 identifiés et 25574 non identifiés, et d’autre part en ionisation positive, un total de 2399 composés organiques annotés dont 1140 identifiés et 1259 non identifiés. Par ailleurs, le traitement chimiométrique des données par Metaboscape a mis en évidence des marqueurs environnementaux après avoir défini des groupes homogènes en nombre et nature d’échantillons de sols. On a ainsi mis en évidence quelques marqueurs présents uniquement dans un seul groupe de sols en lien avec le type de cultures tels l’herbicide diuron dans le sol de vigne et le fongicide époxiconazole dans les sols de grandes cultures. L’analyse non ciblée NTS a permis d’obtenir un très grand volume de données contribuant à la caractérisation de l’état de contamination organique des sols. A partir de ces données, une « empreinte ionique » de chaque sol a été constituée et archivée pouvant servir de référence pour l’observation de futures évolutions de la composition organique des sols. Par ailleurs, l’archivage des données chromatographiques et spectrales peut permettre des traitements des données rétrospectives pour identifier des composés devenus d’intérêt environnemental ou sanitaire. L’analyse suspect et non ciblée NTS des sols pourraient ainsi fortement contribuer à la surveillance de la qualité des sols (pharmacovigilance) en France. (Giovanni Caria) 28 Nov 2023
  • [hal-04104434] Pesticide Residues in French Soils: Occurrence, Risks, and Persistence

    Contamination of the environment by pesticide residues is a growing concern given their widespread presence in the environment and their effects on ecosystems. Only a few studies have addressed the occurrence of pesticides in soils, and their results highlighted the need for further research on the persistence and risks induced by those substances. We monitored 111 pesticide residues (48 fungicides, 36 herbicides, 25 insecticides and/or acaricides, and two safeners) in 47 soils sampled across France under various land uses (arable lands, vineyards, orchards, forests, grasslands, and brownfields). Pesticides were found in 98% of the sites (46 of the 47 sampled), including untreated areas such as organic fields, forests, grasslands, and brownfields, with up to 33 different substances detected in one sample, mostly fungicides and herbicides. The concentrations of herbicides were the highest in soils with glyphosate, and its transformation product, AMPA, contributed 70% of the cumulative herbicides. Risk assessment underlined a moderate to high risk for earthworms in arable soils mostly attributed to insecticides and/or acaricides. Finally, the comparison with pesticide application by farmers underlines the presence of some residues long after their supposed 90% degradation and at concentrations higher than predicted environmental concentrations, leading to questions their real persistence in soils. (Claire Froger) 24 May 2023
  • [hal-03321776] A new, simple, efficient and robust multi-residue method based on pressurized-liquid extraction of agricultural soils to analyze pesticides by liquid chromatography coupled with a high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Background: The latest generation of liquid chromatograph coupled to high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) now competes with quadrupole tandem spectrometers (LC-MS-MS) in terms of sensitivity and speed. In addition, it is possible to obtain additional information retrospectively on the organic composition of the analyzed soil. Due to the exponential increase of the storage capacities of computer hard drives and the speed of electronic processing of computer data, it is all the more possible to recover all of the data generated during the analysis of a soil extract. Objective: The LC-QTOF-MS currently has an essential and primordial advantage; which is the entire transmission of the ions produced in the ionization source towards the mass spectrometer. This original feature opens the way to a probable full exploration of the organic composition of the soils. Methods: A new method for the analysis of pesticides in agricultural soils by using liquid chromatography coupled with a high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC-QTOF-MS) has been developed. Results: Twenty-four pesticides including herbicides, insecticides or fungicides have been studied. The linearity of the external calibration of the pesticides obtained from levels of concentration ranging from 0.010 to 400 μg/L gives satisfactory results with the correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. The quantification limits of the equipment range from 0.010 to 1.250 μg/L and correspond to the lowest standard in the calibration range for which the residual deviation is less than 60%. An experimental design has been used to optimize the parameters of pressurized-liquid extraction (PLE) of pesticides in soils. The optimized conditions have been found by using methanol as extraction solvent at a temperature of 80°C, a pressure of 150 Bars and 2 extraction cycles of 5 minutes. The mean recoveries of pesticides (Mean) are higher than 72% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 21%. These results demonstrate the good efficiency of PLE for the extraction of pesticides in agricultural soils of different nature. The LC-QTOF-MS is a sensitive, linear and robust instrument for the quantification of pesticides in unpurified soils extracts by external calibration. This analytical tool is not subjected to matrix effects of soil extracts. (Giovanni Caria) 17 Mar 2023
  • [hal-01818267] Amendment of soil by biochars and activated carbons to reduce chlordecone bioavailability in piglets

    Chlordecone (Kepone or CLD) is a highly persistent pesticide formerly used in French West Indies. Nowadays high levels of this pesticide are still found in soils which represent a subsequent source of contamination for outdoor-reared animals. In that context, sequestering matrices like biochars or activated carbons (ACs) are believed to efficiently decrease the bioavailability of such compounds when added to contaminated soils. The present study intends to test the respective efficiency of soil amendment strategies using commercial ACs or biochars (obtained by a 500°C or 700°C pyrolysis of 4 distinct type of wood). This study involved three experimental steps. The first one characterized specific surface areas of biochars and ACs. The second one assessed CLD-availability of contaminated artificial soils (50 µg.g-1 of Dry Matter) amended with 5% of biochar or AC (mass basis). The third one assessed CLD bioavailability of those artificial soils through an in vivo assay. To limit ethically the number of animals, selections of the most promising media were performed between each experimental steps. Forty four castrated male 40-day-old piglets were exposed during 10 day to amended artificial soils according their group (n=4). Only treatment groups exposed through amended soil with AC presented a significant decrease of concentrations of CLD in liver and adipose tissue in comparison with the control group (p<0.001). A non-significant decrease was obtained by amending artificial soil with biochars. This decrease was particularly high for a coconut shell activated carbon were relative bioavailability was found lower than 3.2% for both tissues. This study leads to conclude that AC introduced in CLD contaminated soil should strongly reduce CLD bioavailability. (Matthieu Delannoy) 10 Mar 2022
  • [hal-03494263] Fate and impact of specific organic contaminants after sewage sludge spreading on agricultural soils: from lab-scale to field-scale experiments

    [...] (Dominique Patureau) 18 Dec 2021
  • [hal-03362911] A new, simple, efficient and robust multi-residue method based on pressurized-liquid extraction of agricultural soils to analyze pesticides by liquid chromatography coupled with a high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    [...] (Giovanni Caria) 02 Oct 2021
  • [hal-03354473] Développement de méthodes de screening ciblé et non ciblé de composés traces organiques dans les sols à l’aide de la chromatographie liquide à haute performance couplée à un spectromètre de masse à haute résolution et à temps de vol

    [...] (Giovanni Caria) 25 Sep 2021
  • [hal-02828472] Hétérogénéités spatiales générées par l'enfouissement de produits résiduaires organiques à l'échelle du profil cultural: impacts sur la dynamique des micropolluants organiques et minéraux

    [...] (Pierre Benoit) 07 Jun 2020
  • [hal-01348651] Simultaneous detection of antibiotics and other drug residues in the dissolved and particulate phases of water by an off-line SPE combined with on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS: Method development and application

    Due to their widespread use in human and animal healthcare, antibiotics and other drug residues are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. Given their potential impacts on ecosystem functioning and public health, the quantification of environmental drug residues has become a necessity. Various analysis techniques have been found to be suitable for reliable detection of such compounds. However, quantification can be difficult because these compounds are present at trace or ultra-trace levels. Consequently, the accuracy of environmental analyses depends on both the efficiency and the robustness of the extraction and quantification method. In this work, an off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS was applied to the simultaneous extraction and quantification of 26 pharmaceutical products, including 18 antibiotics, dissolved in a water phase. Optimal conditions were determined and then applied to assess the contamination level of the targeted drug residues in water collected from four sites in Northern France: a river, the input and output of an aerated lagoon, and a wastewater treatment plant. Drug residues associated with suspended solid matter (SSM) were also quantified in this work using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) combined with an on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS system in order to complete an assessment of the degree of total background pollution. (I. Tlili) 25 Jul 2016

Date de modification : 28 juin 2023 | Date de création : 02 avril 2011 | Rédaction : Jérôme Rose